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Georgia Natural Wonder #248 - McIntosh Reserve - Carroll County (Part 2) ***
Georgia Natural Wonder #248 - McIntosh Reserve - Carroll County Part 2 ***

We have a lot left to feature on Carroll County and we searched for another Natural Wonder so we finish that tangent on Carroll County.  The early 1800’s saw white settlement in the Carroll County area, which was still considered part of the Wild West. Carroll County was home to Chief William McIntosh, who was half Creek Indian. His main plantation was known as Lockchau Talofau, or Acorn Town, and was located along the Chattahoochee River and Highway 5, also known as McIntosh Trail (located about 5 miles from Banning Mills). Carroll County acquired Lochau Talofau in 1978; the plantation now lies within McIntosh Reserve boundaries. McIntosh Reserve features over 14 miles of trails which may be traveled on foot or via bicycle or horseback. The park features two ponds and lies along the Chattahoochee River.

Chief McIntosh fought alongside Andrew Jackson and became a Brigadier General, the only Native American to reach that rank. McIntosh dined with President Thomas Jefferson at the White House, and his first cousin was Governor George Troup of Georgia. Owning hundreds of acres in Georgia and Alabama, McIntosh became a wealthy businessman.

that is steeped in Natural beauty and the Early Settlement and Chief William McIntosh. Now we covered William many times in prior post, most notably on the post about High Falls and Indian Springs. (GNW #23)

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Indian Springs, Georgia's 1st State Park.

McIntosh had nearly 100 slaves, white men, and Native Americans working for him to help run his two taverns, trading post, overnight lodge, and plantation. Chief William McIntosh signed the Treaty of Indian Springs on February 12, 1825. This treaty infuriated the Upper Creek nation and sealed his death. On May 1, 1825, a large party of Upper Creek Native Americans came to his home and set fire to it.

The Treaty of Indian Springs, also known as the Second Treaty of Indian Springs and the Treaty with the Creeks, is a treaty concluded between the Muscogee and the United States on February 12, 1825 at what is now the Indian Springs Hotel Museum. The Muscogee and the United States had signed the First Treaty of Indian Springs in 1821, under which the former ceded their territory east of the Flint River to Georgia. The treaty that was agreed was negotiated with six chiefs of the Lower Creek, led by William McIntosh. McIntosh agreed to cede all Muscogee lands east of the Chattahoochee River, including the sacred Ocmulgee National Monument, to Georgia and Alabama, and accepted relocation west of the Mississippi River to an equivalent parcel of land along the Arkansas River. In compensation for the move to unimproved land, and to aid in obtaining supplies, the Muscogee nation would receive $200,000 paid in decreasing installments over a period of years. An additional $200,000 was paid directly to McIntosh.

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Can see boulder referenced in background.

The United States Senate ratified the treaty on March 7 by a margin of one vote. The treaty was popular with Georgians, who reelected George Troup governor in the state's first popular election in 1825. It was signed by only six chiefs; the Creek National Council denounced it, ordering the execution of McIntosh and the other Muscogee signatories, as it was a capital crime to alienate tribal land. A delegation from the Creek National Council, led by chief Opothleyahola, traveled to Washington, D.C. with a petition to the American president John Quincy Adams to have it revoked. They negotiated the 1826 Treaty of Washington, in which the Muscogee surrendered most of the lands sought by Georgia under more generous terms, retaining a small piece of land on the Georgia-Alabama border and the Ocmulgee National Monument. They were, moreover, not required to move west. Troup refused to recognize the new treaty, and ordered the Muscogee lands surveyed for a land lottery. He began forcibly evicting the Lower Creek. Adams threatened federal intervention, but backed down after Troup mobilized Georgia militia.

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William McIntosh (1775 – April 30, 1825), also known as Taskanugi Hatke (White Warrior), was one of the most prominent chiefs of the Creek Nation between the turn of the nineteenth century and his execution in 1825. McIntosh was a leader in adopting certain elements of European-American culture; he was interested in introducing US education among the Creek, adopted the use of chattel slavery on his plantations, and played a role in centralizing the Creek National Council over the years.

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He used his influence to improve a Creek trail connecting the Upper and Lower Towns, that ran from Talladega, Alabama to the Chattahoochee River. He owned two plantations, Lockchau Talofau ("Acorn Bluff") in present-day Carroll County, and Indian Springs, in present-day Butts County. His plantation of Acorn Bluff was at the eastern terminus of the McIntosh Road, where the chief developed a ferry operation across the Chattahoochee River. He owned numerous black slaves to cultivate cotton as a commodity crop on his plantations. He also built a resort hotel at Indian Springs, hoping to attract more travelers along the improved road. Parts of this route are still referred to as the McIntosh Road, or the McIntosh Trail. It passes through several northern counties in Alabama and Georgia.

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Chief of defeated Creeks meeting General Jackson.

McIntosh fought in support of General Andrew Jackson and state militias in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, marking the defeat in 1814 of the Red Sticks and the end of the Creek War. He was made a brigadier general.

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McIntosh fought with the United States in the First Seminole War and helped capture Fort Gadsden. When the Americans shot a heated cannonball into the fort, it struck the magazine and set off a huge explosion. Most of the people within the fort died immediately.

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Earlier American historians attributed McIntosh's achievements and influence to his mixed race Scots/European ancestry. Since the late 20th century, some revisionist historians have contended that his power stemmed more from his Creek upbringing, particularly his mother's prominent Wind Clan in the Creek matrilineal system, and to other aspects of Creek culture.

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Because McIntosh led a group that negotiated and signed a treaty in 1825 to cede much of remaining Creek lands to the United States in violation of Creek law, for the first time the Creek National Council ordered that a Creek be executed for crimes against the Nation. It sentenced him and other signatories to death.  On April 30, 1825, the Red Stick leader Menawa, with a large force of 120-150 Law Menders (the recently organized Creek police force) from towns in the ceded territory, attacked the McIntosh plantation, lighting bonfires around the buildings. His wife begged for McIntosh to die bravely, and he fought valiantly against his foes. Then they set McIntosh's house on fire. McIntosh, wounded by gunfire, was pulled from the burning house by several attackers, then one of the men stabbed him in the heart. Other Creeks shot him more than fifty times. They cut his liver out, mutilated him, they was perturbed. McIntosh is buried where he fell at Louckchau, now McIntosh Reserve, and a county park that is over 527 acres.

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Chillie McIntosh, the chief's oldest son, had also been sentenced to die, but he escaped by diving through a window. Etommee Tustunnuggee, another Creek chief who signed the 1825 treaty, was killed during the raid. Later that day, the Law Menders found the Hawkins brothers, who were also signatories; they hanged Samuel and shot Benjamin, but he escaped and lived for another decade. William McIntosh's wives asked for a suit of clothes for his burial, but the assassins insisted on throwing the naked corpse into an unmarked grave. His burial site and part of his plantation have been preserved as the McIntosh Reserve in Carroll County, Georgia.

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McIntosh's descendants were removed with the other Creek people to Indian Territory. His two sons served as Confederate officers during the American Civil War. His daughters, Rebecca and Delilah, moved to East Texas with their husbands, developing plantations there. Rebecca McIntosh Hawkins Hagerty married again after her first husband died young, and by 1860 was the wealthiest woman in Texas, owning three plantations with a total of 12,800 acres, and 120 slaves.

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McIntosh Reserve is an outdoor recreation area along the Chattahoochee River located in Carroll County, Georgia. The 527-acre park is operated by the Carroll County Recreation Department and supports outdoor activities including camping, hiking, fishing, and others. The park is open year-round, closing only on Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year's Day. McIntosh Reserve is named for William McIntosh, Jr., a prominent Creek Indian leader.

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Blair Witch?

The plantation was known as Lochau Talofau, which in English means "Acorn Bluff." McIntosh lived in a modest home, a two-story log house with a central, open "dog run" passage on both floors. The house doubled as an inn for travelers. A reconstructed house is open to park visitors today.

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He was executed at his home in 1825. McIntosh's single-plot, military grave may be found just across the road from the reconstructed house.

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In 1921, McIntosh's grave was marked by a boulder with a bronze tablet placed by the William McIntosh Chapter, DAR in October 1921. The inscription states:

"To the Memory and Honor of General William McIntosh

The Distinguished and Patriotic Son of Georgia whose devotion was heroic, whose friendship unselfish and whose service was valiant. Who negotiated the treaty with the Creek Indians which gave the state all lands lying west of the Flint River. Who sacrificed his life for his patriotism.

Erected by William McIntosh Chapter D. A. R. Jackson, Georgia, 1921."

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This mounting block is perhaps the most important surviving contemporary relic of Lockchau Talofau [Acorn Bluff] , Chief McIntosh’s property along the Chattahoochee. A tablet near the stone notes: Hewn from West Georgia Limestone, the McIntosh Stone represents a significant time in the state’s history, as well as that of Carroll County. Chief William H. McIntosh of the Lower Creek tribe had the stone carved to help guests mount horses and board carriages here at Lockchau Talofau- or Acorn Bluff- his home on the Chattahoochee River.

Fishing is allowed in the park; the nearby town of Whitesburg, Georgia provides access to the river for rafting and canoeing. An annual Fall Festival features a "Native American Pow-Wow," a traditional Native American music and dance performance. We wandered around the park a bit, visited the river and the over-look, and checked-out the gravesite of William McIntosh.John Tanner Park (formerly a state park) where the kids played in the water for hours. But that's another story. Polocrosse, a fun game played on horseback and great for a wide verity of ages, is practiced on most Sunday afternoons, weather permitting.

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WTF Lacrosse on horseback?

letter to jeffersom

McIntosh Reserve is an outdoor recreation area along the Chattahoochee River located in Carroll County, Georgia. The 527-acre (2.13 km2) park is operated by the Carroll County Recreation Department and supports outdoor activities including camping, hiking, fishing, and others. The park is open year-round, closing only on Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year's Day.[1] McIntosh Reserve is named for William McIntosh Jr., a prominent Creek Indian leader

The Reserve is named for William McIntosh Jr., a prominent Creek Indian leader and planter. The plantation was known as Lochau Talofau, which in English means "Acorn Bluff". It is adjacent to Acorn Creek. McIntosh lived in a modest home, a two-story log house with a central, open "dog run" passage on both floors. The house doubled as an inn for travelers. A reconstructed house is open to park visitors today.[2]

In 1825, McIntosh signed the second Treaty of Indian Springs. The treaty essentially sold all Creek lands in Georgia and Alabama to the United States government; McIntosh was allowed to keep his plantation in exchange for signing the treaty. The treaty had been opposed by the Creek National Council and it violated the Law, the Code of 1818. The Council ordered the execution of McIntosh and other signatories for having committed a capital offense against the government by ceding communal lands, and he was executed at his home in 1825. McIntosh's single-plot, military grave may be found just across the road from the reconstructed house.[2]

Carroll County acquired Lochau Talofau in 1978; the plantation now lies within McIntosh Reserve boundaries.[1] McIntosh Reserve Park was closed for several months in 2009 and 2010, following the September 2009 flooding on the Chattahoochee River. The park was scheduled to reopen for Memorial Day weekend, 2010.
Activities and events

McIntosh Reserve features over 14 miles (23 km) of trails which may be traveled on foot or via bicycle or horseback. A large, flat grassy area is frequently used by model airplane hobbyists or groups seeking an open gathering place. The park also maintains several primitive campsites. The park also features a splash pad with covered enclosures, grills, tables and a scenic river overlook for more family friendly fun and enjoyment. The splash pad features several water sprinklers, and colorful play stations, which allow children of all ages to cool off during the hot summer months.

The park features two ponds and lies along the Chattahoochee River. Fishing is allowed in the park; the nearby town of Whitesburg, Georgia provides access to the river for rafting and canoeing.

Annual events such as the Easter Festival, Halloween Carnival, and Santa Program draw visitors to the park. An annual Fall Festival features a "Native American Pow-Wow," a traditional Native American music and dance performance. The Chattahoochee Challenge Car Show and various club-, hobby-, or scouting-related events also take place in the park.[1]

Polocrosse, a fun game played on horseback and great for a wide variety of ages, is practiced on most Sunday afternoons, weather permitting.

Carroll County Part 2

National Register of Historic Places (Part 2)

South Carrollton Residential Historic District

The South Carrollton Residential Historic District consists of a historic in-town residential neighborhood dating from the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. The district is located on gently hilly terrain to the south-east of the downtown commercial district. It is laid out in an irregular gridiron pattern. House lots are of varying sizes and shapes, with the majority being long and narrow. Houses in the district are almost exclusively single-family residences. They are situated relatively close together near the fronts of their lots with common setbacks from the street. They date from the 1870s to the 1930s. Dwellings are one or two stories high and range in size from modest cottages to large homes owned by Carrollton prominent families.

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Architectural styles represented include the Victorian Gothic, Queen Anne, Eclectic, Neoclassical and Craftsman/Bungalow. Features such as sawnwork and turned porch and gable trim, bay windows, and steep gable roofs are typical of the Victorian Gothic buildings. Balustrades, massive porticos, and smaller-scale classical details characterize the Neoclassical buildings. Low pitched hipped and gabled roofs, battered columns, and shingle siding are among the features found on the Craftsman/Bungalow houses.

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Many of Carrollton's most prominent leaders and middle-class citizens lived historically in the South Carrollton Residential Historic District, as well as a number of the city's working class. This wide cross section of people included merchants and businessmen, industrialists, professionals, politicians, managers and clerks and laborers. 

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Among the most prominent residents of the area was W.C. Adamson, a judge who was elected to Congress in 1894 and served his district for twenty-five years as a powerful member and, finally, chairman of the Committee on Labor.

U.S. Post Office (Carrollton, Georgia)

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The United States Post Office, Carrollton, Georgia, built in 1914, is a Georgian Revival style brick building located across from the Carroll County Courthouse, just east of the downtown commercial district in Carrollton, Carroll County, Georgia. The one-story rectangular structure has a raised basement faced with stone. Brick pilasters with stone bases and capitals divide the red brick building into bays, seven on the front and four on the sides. One large twelve-over-twelve pane double-hung sash window with stone sill and lintel is located in each bay, with a small window or stone panel above.

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Imposing stone steps lead from the sidewalk to the centrally located main entrance on the front facade. The frontispiece-type, trabeated entrance is of stone. Double doors and a mullioned trarisbm"are surmounted by a prominent" consoled cornice. Above this, an eagle with outstretched wings, sculpted in high relief, is framed by a stone panel.

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The post office interior has three levels: a full open basement; the main floor with lobby and large workroom; and a mezzanine. The lobby, located along the south front of the building, is finished with a terrazzo floor, marble baseboard, paneled wood wainscotting, plaster pilasters, and a plaster ceiling with exposed beams and prominent cornice.

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In terms of local history, the post office is significant for its connection with William Charles Adamson (1854-1929), a prominent Carrollton attorney who served as a U.S. Congressman for twenty years and was responsible for Carrollton obtaining this large and up-to-date post office. While serving in the U.S. Congress (1897-1917), he was for some time Chairman of the Committee on Labor and was instrumental in obtaining passage of the Adamson Eight Hour Law (limiting the work day to eight hours) and in organizing the Department of Labor.

Veal School

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The Veal School near Roopville, Georgia was built in 1900 and expanded in 1929. It served as a school until 1949. Since then it became used by its community. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005.

It is a one-story building with cedar shingles and four classrooms. The 1929 expansion added hallways between the classrooms and an auditorium.

The auditorium was used for roller skating on Friday nights beginning in 1954. It has also been used for movies, meetings, concerts, theatre, sports and fundraisers. It was deeded by the Carroll County Board of Education to the community in 1955.

Whitesburg Baptist Church

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The Whitesburg Baptist Church is located in the small town of Whitesburg in Carroll County, Georgia. The Whitesburg Baptist Church is a small, one-story, rectangular, wood-frame building with weatherboard siding. The Gothic Revival-style church was constructed in 1875-1876. The form of the church is typical for a small town Baptist church with a front-gable and central tower. The foundation is brick piers with concrete block infill.

The Whitesburg Baptist Church, was probably one of the first churches established in Carroll County, possibly as early as 1849. Many of its earlier practices, such as "churching" members and requiring men and women to enter the sanctuary through separate doors and sit in isolation from one another, were dominant practices among early 19th-century Baptists.

The mural behind the pulpit in the baptistery was painted by Jack Ashmore, a local artist well-known in the west Georgia area. He was born on February 5,1912, and died on May 22,1997. A sign painter by trade, Mr. Ashmore did not keep an inventory of his murals but it is known that he painted murals for the New Hope Methodist Church, West Carrollton Baptist Church, Arnco Baptist Church (Coweta County), and Salem Baptist Church. Painting by Mr. Ashmore hang in the Union Methodist Church, Pine Knoll Nursing Home, Carroliton Manor Nursing Home, and many other locations in west Georgia.

Williams Family Farm

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The Williams Family Farm, in Carroll County, Georgia near Villa Rica, Georgia, was built in 1891. It has also been known as the Goldworth Farm. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005. The listing included seven contributing buildings, six contributing structures, 11 contributing sites, and a contributing object.

In 2005 it was a farm complex with a Folk Victorian-style main house built in 1891, a number of outbuildings, and an extant landscape. It includes an 1891 smokehouse, an 1891 horse barn, and a brick creamery from 1895.

It is located at 55 Goldworth Rd., southwest of Villa Rica, on an old alignment of the unpaved-in-2005 Villa Rica-Carrollton Road, which was bypassed by Georgia Highway 61.

The front entrance has an ornate wood front door with round-arched lights and a transom. On the front facade and the rear facade of the ell, the windows are large-paned, six-over-six, double-hung windows that reach from floor to ceiling. Other windows are six-over-six or four-over-four double-hung windows.

The front hall has plaster walls; beaded, wood door surrounds with bull's-eye comer blocks; beaded wainscoting with a chair rail; unusual, beaded wood ceiling; and heart-pine floor. The parlor has similar features with beaded, wood door surrounds with bull's-eye comer blocks; beaded wainscoting and a chair rail; plaster walls; unusual, beaded wood ceiling; heart-pine floor; and a wide, six-paneled wood door.

Hot water was supplied through the use of a small boiler in the rear of the creamery and water for the dairy operation and household use was pumped from a spring 3,000 feet west of the house complex by a hydraulic ram pump. The water was stored in an 800-gallon wooden cistern located near the horse barn (cistern is now mostly ruins).

Historical Markers and Monuments Carroll County Georgia

Whatley Memorial Historic Park

Last Land in Georgia Ceded by the Creeks

Site of Bowdon College — 1857-1936

Sacred Harp Singing


Charles Carroll of Carrollton

Dixie Street — From 1865

First “REA” Substation in Carroll County

Six Industrial Giants

University of West Georgia

Bank of Villa Rica

Freedom Riders

Fullerville Jail — 1916-1956

The Grove

The Mill

Thomas A. Dorsey — Father of Gospel

Thomas Andrew Dorsey

Villa Rica Explosion

Villa Rica's Textile Industry

Council Bluffs Treaty

McIntosh Reserve

Whitesburg — This Log House is Similar to the Home of Chief William McIntosh


City of Carrollton (County Seat)

Carrollton, Georgia is a city in western Georgia, about 45 miles west of Atlanta near the Alabama state line. It is the county seat of Carroll County, which is included in the Atlanta Metropolitan Area. Historically, Carrollton has been a commercial center for several mostly rural counties in both Georgia and Alabama. It is the home of the University of West Georgia and West Georgia Technical College. It is a rural area with a large farming community. The 2019 estimates placed the city's population at 27,259.


Carroll County, of which Carrollton is the county seat, was chartered in 1826, and was governed at the time by the Carroll Inferior Court, which consisted of five elected justices. In 1829, the justices voted to move the county seat from the site it occupied near the present community of Sandhill, to a new site about 8 miles to the southwest.

The original intention was to call the new county seat "Troupville", in honor of former governor George Troup, but Troup was not popular with the state government of the time, so the Georgia General Assembly incorporated the town as Carrollton, in December 1829. The name was in honor of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the last living signer of the Declaration of Independence.

In 1830, the town was surveyed and lots were laid out, with the central feature being the town square, which was later named Adamson Square, for local judge and congressman William C. Adamson.

Although it was the county seat and the main market town for most of Carroll County, transportation of both goods and passengers was difficult until the coming of the railroad in 1874, so Carrollton remained largely a frontier town until well after the Civil War.

The coming of the railroad brought new prosperity to Carrollton. Farmers were able to bring their crops, mostly cotton, to town for shipment to distant markets, and obtain the fertilizers and agricultural supplies they needed. At the same time, consumer goods were more readily available than ever before.

The railroad also encouraged the growth of the fledgling industrial ventures, especially in the textile industry, in and around Carrollton. These early textile mills, mostly water powered, served as the basis for a textile industry that helped ensure the town's prosperity well into the 20th century.

At the start of the 20th century, Carrollton boasted running water and had electric lighting and telephone service. The town began paving its streets in 1918.

In 1906, Carrollton was chosen as the site of the Fourth District Agricultural and Mechanical School, which became West Georgia College in 1934, and is now a 12,834-student university, the University of West Georgia. In May 1964 Robert F. Kennedy visited Carrollton for the dedication of Kennedy Chapel on the university campus.

Panoramic of Carrollton's Adamson Square c. 1912

Carrollton remained an agricultural and textile manufacturing center throughout the first half of the 20th century, but as the local production of cotton declined and the population became more urban, other industries began to take on a greater prominence. Most notable is the Southwire Company. Founded in Carrollton in 1950, Southwire is now one of the world's largest manufacturers of wire and cable and is the largest privately owned wire manufacturer, with more than 1,500 local employees and 5,000 employees worldwide.

This diversification of industry has continued into the 21st century, aided in part by Carrollton's ready access to Interstate 20 and the Norfolk Southern Railway. The city's major employers presently include companies in the airline, construction, power distribution, poultry, software, home entertainment, and healthcare industries, among others.

Carrollton also remains an important market town, with a wide variety of national retail chains and restaurants, serving Carroll County and the surrounding region.

Carrollton was mentioned in Margaret Mitchell's 1936 novel Gone with the Wind and in the 1939 movie of the same name. Carrollton featured in the 1983 TV movie Murder in Coweta County, although the Carrollton scenes were not actually filmed there. Other films shot in the Carrollton area include Conjurer with John Schneider, The Way Home with Dean Cain, and Between Love and a Hard Place with Bern Nadette Stanis. Carrollton was the home of actress Susan Hayward.

On August 21, 1995, Atlantic Southeast Airlines Flight 529 crashed near Carrollton. Nine of the 29 passengers and crew on board were killed as a result of the accident.

The city attracted news media attention amidst allegations of censorship in September 2011 when the mayor overruled the board of the city-owned Carrollton Cultural Arts Center in order to ban as "very offensive" the live stage musical The Rocky Horror Show that had been scheduled for a run just before Halloween. The theater board had authorized use of the venue and appropriated $2,500 for the show, which was already in rehearsal. News reports attributed the mayor's decision to his being shown by the city manager a video of the rehearsal posted by a cast member to a personal Facebook page. In February 2012, three months later than originally planned, the show was produced and privately funded without city money at the Townsend Center for the Performing Arts at the University of West Georgia, also in Carrollton. The Virginia-based anti-censorship Thomas Jefferson Center for the Protection of Free Expression gave one of its national 2012 "Muzzle" awards to the mayor "for appointing himself the arbiter of cultural taste for an entire town, and canceling a pre-approved production of The Rocky Horror Show at a city-owned theater."

Parks and recreation

Several parks are located in Carrollton such as Longview Park, Knox Park and Castle Playground. John Tanner State Park, which is 6 miles west of the city, has a lake with a beach and swimming area, walking or running track, and camp grounds.[

The Carrollton Greenbelt[25] is the largest paved loop in the state of Georgia. It is 18 miles long and is used for walking and bicycling. The trail goes all around Carrollton and has "trailheads" at Laura's Park at Hays Mill, Old-Newnan Road, Lakeshore Park, and more.

East Carrollton Park is located near Lake Carroll.


Carrollton's downtown area is named Adamson Square after Congressman William C. Adamson. The area is the host to many of Carrollton's events, such as the annual Mayfest which takes place in the first week of May. Right off the Square is the Carrollton Center for the Arts, the site of Carrollton Festival of the Arts, an arts and crafts festival held in October.

In 2012 The AMP at Adamson Square debuted; this outdoor covered amphitheater can seat 800–1,000 people and shows a variety of free music and movie performances. Carrollton is well known for its diverse live music tradition. Many restaurants offer live music performances as well the Lowell Opry House where staged concerts are held.

One block south of the Square is the Southeastern Quilt & Textile Museum, which opened in September 2012.[28] Exhibits have featured traditional and contemporary quilts by both solo artists and various regional guilds, and a partnership with the Center for Public History at the University of West Georgia has enabled the museum to exhibit highlights of the history of the local textile industry..

Carrollton has about 100 places of worship. The Sacred Harp Publishing Company, a non-profit organization supporting Sacred Harp singing, publishes the most widely used edition of the Sacred Harp songbook. Carrollton is the birthplace of Baptist pastor Jerry Vines. It is also the home of a small denomination: the National Association of Wesleyan Evangelicals.

City of Villa Rica

Fairfield (Unincorporated)

Fairfield Plantation is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in eastern Carroll County, Georgia, United States. It is a community situated around a golf course and reservoir (Treasure Lake), 8 miles south of Villa Rica and 38 miles west of Atlanta. Fairfield Plantation was created as a Planned Unit Development in the 1970s. The population as of the 2020 census is 4,898.

City of Temple

Temple is a city in Carroll and Haralson counties in the U.S. state of Georgia. The population was 5,089 at the 2020 census, up from 4,228 in 2010, a 20.36% increase.


The name "Temple" was adopted in 1883 when the railroad was extended to the settlement, after one Mr. Temple, a railroad official. The Georgia General Assembly incorporated Temple as a town in 1883.

City of Bowdon

Bowdon is a city in Carroll County, Georgia, United States. As of the 2020 census, the city had a population of 2,161.


The community was incorporated on January 1, 1859, and was named after Alabama congressman Franklin Welsh Bowdon.

Bowdon College was established in Bowdon in 1857 but closed in 1936.

Bowdon was formerly served by the Bowdon Railway, in operation from 1910 to 1963.

On August 21, 1995, Atlantic Southeast Airlines Flight 529 crashed between Bowdon and neighboring city Carrollton.

City of Mount Zion

Mount Zion is a city in Carroll County, Georgia, United States. The population was 1,696 at the 2010 census.


The City of Mount Zion was established in 1852 by Reverend Thomas Hicks Martin (March 10, 1822 - June 14, 1914), after his family had settled on land that had once been owned by the Creek Confederacy. It became known as Turkey Creek Mills, the name derived from a large wild turkey population found in the area. The city's name was later adopted from the local Mount Zion Methodist Episcopal Church, established 1865, which had soon became the center point of the community, and in 1878 the name Turkey Creek Mills was changed to Mount Zion.

In 1877, Reverend James Mitchell took his ministry to Mount Zion and founded the Mount Zion Seminary, the predecessor institution of the current Mount Zion High School.

The Georgia General Assembly incorporated Mount Zion as a town in 1912[8] and re-chartered in 1953 and again in 1978.

Mount Zion is one of the few cities in Georgia with the Confederate Flag incorporated in its city flag, which is based on the 1956 Georgia state flag and inspired by the Trenton, Georgia city flag that began flying in 2002. The Mount Zion city flag began flying April 10, 2007.

Town of Whitesburg

Whitesburg is a town in Carroll County, Georgia, United States. The population was 588 at the 2010 census.

The McIntosh Reserve here is the former plantation of Chief William McIntosh, a prominent leader of the Lower Towns of the Creek Confederacy. He was executed at his home in 1825 on order of the National Council of the Creek Nation for having negotiated and signed the Treaty of Indian Springs that year, which ceded most of the Creek territory in Georgia and Alabama to the United States. The Creek National Council negotiated a new treaty with the United States the next year to gain a more favorable settlement, but most of the Creek were removed to Indian Territory in the 1820s and 1830s.

In the 21st century federally recognized tribes of the Creek include the Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, and Thlopthlocco Tribal Town of Oklahoma, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, and the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas.

Acorn Creek, a tributary of the Chattahoochee River, originates just west of Whitesburg. It takes its name from Acorn Town, a Creek Indian settlement and plantation which stood near its mouth.


This area was long occupied by indigenous peoples. In the historic period after European encounter, it was occupied by members of the Creek Confederacy, a loose grouping of related peoples, and was known as the area of the Lower Towns by the early nineteenth century. William McIntosh, a mixed-race leader of the Creek, established a modest house and plantation here. He was executed in 1825 on order of the Creek National Council for having negotiated and signed the 1825 Treaty of Indian Springs, which ceded all remaining lands in Georgia and Alabama to the United States. He had violated tribal law, the Code of 1818 that protected communal property.

After Creek removal, American settlers entered the area from the east. Many became subsistence farmers. Whitesburg was established by European-American settlers in 1873. The community was named after A.J. White, a railroad official. The Georgia General Assembly incorporated Whitesburg in 1874.

Town of Roopville

Roopville is a town in Carroll County, Georgia, United States. The population was 218 at the 2010 census.


Roopville was founded in 1881 by John K. Roop, and named for him. The Georgia General Assembly incorporated Roopville as a town in 1885.

Carroll County has several incorporated towns within its boundaries—Bowdon, Carrollton, Mt. Zion, Roopville, Temple, Villa Rica, and Whitesburg. Most of the county is within an hour’s drive of Atlanta and has been experiencing rapid growth. According to the 2020 U.S. census, the county population is 119,148, an increase over the 2010 population of 110,527.

Carroll County has been home to many prominent people. Roy Richards founded Southwire and turned it into the world’s largest privately owned wire company. The actress Susan Hayward lived just north of Carrollton and is buried there. William C. Adamson served in the U.S. Congress from 1897 to 1917 and sponsored the Adamson Act, which established an eight-hour work day for interstate railroad employees. Newt Gingrich, who taught at the University of West Georgia, served in the U.S. Congress from 1979 to 1999, the last four years as Speaker of the House.

Notable people

William C. Adamson - politician,Associate Justice of the United States Customs Court and member of the Board of General Appraisers.

Margie Alexander - American gospel and soul singer.

Terry Boyd - former CBA player.

C. J. Brewer, #62 Defensive Tackle for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers.

Reggie Brown - former Philadelphia Eagles and University of Georgia wide receiver.

Bull Buchanan - current Rampage Pro Wrestling World Heavyweight Champion.

Mark Butler - politician.

Betty Reynolds Cobb - attorney, author, and activist.

Walter Terry Colquitt, Methodist preacher, United States Representative and Senator from Georgia.

Cooper Criswell - pitcher for the Boston Red Sox.

Corey Crowder - former NBA player.

Richard DeLong - Sacred Harp singer.

Mike Dugan, Georgia State Senate Majority Leader.

Taylor Clark Duncan, autism advocate, community entrepreneur, and founder of Alternative Baseball.

Donna Fiducia, News / Media Personality.

Patrick Gamble - former NFL and Georgia Tech defensive end.

Bill Hamrick - lawyer, politician, and judge.

Hollis L. Harris - former president and COOof Delta Air Lines and chairman, president, and CEO of Continental Airlines, Air Canada, and World Airways.

Josh Harris, NFL long snapper and Auburn University graduate.

Julian Hoke Harris - famous sculptor.

Susan Hayward - Academy Award-winning actress.

Jamie Henderson - former New York Jets and University of Georgia cornerback.

Michael 'Mike' Huey - professional drummer and record producer.

John Willis Hurst - personal cardiologist for Lyndon B. Johnson.

Keith Jackson (1928-2018), sportscaster.

Jonathan Jones - football cornerback for the New England Patriots

Nick Jones - former Seattle Seahawks center and current Los Angeles Rams coaching assistant

Catherine Hardy Lavender - Olympic athlete and gold medalist

James Mitchell, U.S. Commissioner of negro colonization for President Abraham Lincoln.

Steve Moore - racing driver.

MJ Morris - quarterback for North Carolina State University, University of Maryland.

Dylan Parham - offensive guard for the Las Vegas Raiders.

Darnell Powell - former Buffalo Bills and New York Jets running back and UTC graduate.

Dontavius Russell - NFL defensive tackle and free agent.

Steve Thomas - NBA and former CBA player.

Kin Vassy - country singer and songwriter.

Don Wix - politician.

Amy Yates - murder victim for
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